382-322 BC
Biographical Sketch: 

Aristotle, one of Plato's greatest students, was born in 384 BC. Aristotle's father was a physician to the king of Mecadonia, and when Aristotle was seventeen years old, he was sent to study at Plato's Academy. He spent 20 years in the Academy and only left after Plato's death.

He eventually married Pythias, with whom he had a daughter and probably a son, Nicomachus. In 342,Aristotle was appointed tutor to Philip II's thirteen-year-old son, Alexander (later known as Alexander the Great). After remaining in the Macedonian court at Pella for some time, Aristotle probably retired to Stagira in 340, when Alexander became his father's regent. Not long after, in 335, Aristotle returned to Athens and founded a school, the Lyceum. Here, Aristotle lectured, conducted research, and established a library. Upon Alexander's death in 323, the anti-Macedonian party grew strong in Athens. Some of its officials charged Aristotle with impiety and prosecuted him. Following this incident, Aristotle left the directorship of his school to Theophrastus and departed Athens for the last time. He retired to Chalcis and died in the next year, 322.


The Athenian Constitution
On Dreams
On the Gait of Animals
On Generation and Corruption
On the Heavens
The History of Animals
On Interpretation
On Longevity and Shortness of Life
On Memory and Reminiscence
On the Motions of Animals
Nicomachean Ethics
On the Parts of Animals
Posterior Analytics
Prior Analytics
On Prophesying by Dreams
Sense and Sensible
On Sleep and Sleeplessness
On Sophistical Refutations
On the Soul
Virtues and Vices
On Youth and Old Age, On Life and Death, On Breathing


A tyrant must put on the appearance of uncommon devotion to religion. Subjects are less apprehensive of illegal treatment from a ruler whom they consider god-fearing and pious. On the other hand, they do less easily move against him, believing that he has the gods on his side.